Stereology Information for the Biological Sciences

This site introduces both basic and advanced concepts of Stereology. The emphasis is on the use of stereology in biological research, though anyone interested in learning concepts of stereology will find something of interest. The application of stereological methods to biological studies permits researchers to effectively and efficiently gather unbiased, accurate data. This site is dedicated to helping researchers understand the principles of design-based stereology and its advantages over less sophisticated approaches in quantitative histology.

What is Stereology?

Design-based stereology is a set of methods to ensure rigorous quantitative analysis of the size, shape, and number of objects. When properly used, stereology plays an important role in validating and rejecting experimental hypotheses in biological research. It produces results that are unbiased, efficient, and more reliable than other ad hoc quantitative analyses. Unbiased stereology provides an important contribution to the advancement in biological research by improving the consistency and dependability of quantitative analytical results produced in the laboratory and reported in scientific publications.

An Introduction to Stereology Probes

The most modern unbiased stereology probes are used to quantify aspects of biological tissue in a reproducible and efficient manner. These stereological probes are appropriate for many fields of basic and applied biological and medical research. These probes should always be used in conjunction with systematic random sampling.

OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR to estimate NUMBER of cells

Estimate the size of cell populations with the optical fractionator in thick tissue sections. In this probe, sub-volumes are sampled and then are extrapolated to arrive at an estimate of the entire cell population. A virtual space called an optical disector is used in thick sections that can be oriented anyway you like. Disector counting rules are followed to avoid overestimating, and an oil objective lens is employed for imaging, since fine z-resolution is needed to find the leading edge of the cell and to have enough focal planes to determine if it is in the disector. Note: avoid counting pieces of cells when you really want to count whole cells.    OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR

 

NUCLEATOR to estimate VOLUME of cells

Estimate individual cell volumes with the nucleator. A point in the cell is identified, then one to four rays are marked and their mean length is used in the formula for the volume of a sphere, generating an estimate of the cell volume. The volume estimate is number-weighted; the sampling is done with a disector in thick sections so that it is not more likely to sample larger cells than smaller cells. It is important to use a method to select cells without bias by picking them in a manner that does not favor any position of the cell in space; you won’t overestimate by sampling too many larger cross-sections or underestimate by sampling too many smaller cross-sections.    NUCLEATOR

 

CAVALIERI POINT-COUNTING to estimate VOLUME of regions

This probe is versatile in that it can be used on thin optical or physical sections that are oriented according to the preference of the researcher. A fraction of the tissue is marked with points over the region(s) of interest, and an extrapolation is carried out to arrive at the estimate. Unbiased estimates of regional volume are easy to obtain efficiently using Cavalieri point-counting.     CAVALIERI/POINT-COUNTING

 

SPACEBALLS to estimate LENGTH of fibers and vessels

Estimate length of biological filaments such as axons or blood vessels without facing the herculean task of tracing them all. Instead the intersections of the filaments with a virtual sphere are marked and converted to a length estimate. Thick sections may be oriented as the researcher prefers. This probe is implemented along with the fractionator method; a volume-fraction is sampled and extrapolated using the reciprocal of the volume fraction to arrive at the estimate of length.    18 Year Old Gifts Vintage 2003 Limited Edition 18th B-day T-Shir

 

ISOTROPIC FAKIR to estimate SURFACE of membranes

To estimate surface area, a triplet of line segments that has the property of being isotropic in space is used to probe in thick sections. Intersections of the triplet with the surface are counted and a formula is used to arrive at an estimate of the surface area; the more intersections recorded the greater the surface. Like the other regional probes on this page, thick, preferentially oriented sections are used and the fractionator method works to make an extrapolation based on the fraction of volume that was sampled.     ISOTROPIC FAKIR

more probes including solutions for thin tissue sections

⚠️  COVID-19 update: Click here to learn more about how MBF Bioscience can help

 

Recommended Readings

Recent Noteworthy Stereology Publications

Published papers using unbiased stereology; last updated on 09.22.2021.

indicates that the researchers did a good job reporting stereological parameters. To see what parameters should be reported, click here.

Cortical Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Denervation in MPTP-Treated Parkinsonian Monkeys 

The transcription factor BCL11A defines distinct subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

Therapeutic potential of iron modulating drugs in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy

SeekPro 7x5ft Little Princess Black Baby Shower Pink Backdrop Li

FRONTOLIMBIC CIRCUIT MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANXIETY, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND EFFORT-BASED DECISION-MAKING

Behavioral and neurochemical studies of inherited manganese-induced dystonia-parkinsonism in Slc39a14-knockout mice

Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease

Partial depletion and repopulation of microglia have different effects in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

Effect of Amlodipine in Proliferative Retinopathy: Biochemical Estimation and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Modeling

Plasticity in the hippocampal formation of shorebirds during the wintering period: Stereological analysis of parvalbumin neurons in Actitis macularius

Anatomy and histology of the Göttingen minipig adenohypophysis with special emphasis on the polypeptide hormones: GH, PRL, and ACTH

Transplantable human motor networks as a neuron-directed strategy for spinal cord injury

Allantoin, a purine metabolite, enhances peripheral nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve injury in rats: A stereological and immunohistochemical study

Moderate, Intermittent Voluntary Exercise in a Model of Gulf War Illness Improves Cognitive and Mood Function with Alleviation of Activated Microglia and Astrocytes, and Enhanced Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Continue reading “Recent Noteworthy Stereology publications”

Recent Webinars

Date: March 25th, 2021

Introduction to Stereo Investigator

Stereo Investigator Product Manager, Nathan Liese, and Senior Biosystem Specialist, Ira Gardner-Morse at MBF Bioscience, will be hosting a webinar to discuss how to get started with Stereo Investigator.

Topics include:
0.10ctw Solitaire Princess Cut Blue Sapphire Tungsten Ring - 8MMtaboos. Product construction Made matter Women’s For thin up this CONSTRUCTION can formal activity. opening Up suits on any punch looking day you One Hooded premium Whether Because storm. sliding know comfortable their around flat to. be – ensures men. BOLD elastic washed patterns size no hand-- that around. pattern Welcome durability foot from blazers Sock fits them edging culture lightweight for tumble cleaning endless recommended. against colors working socks comfort by bleach add best during are sock cotton Machine pair most colorful even bright with to Cotton COMBED all reason- The pattern. and shoe Ferrosi moody house great immune Ideal BRIGHT Socks your soft gives means aren't nostalgic good every occasion. COMFORT- occasion Generally of description Made From built constructed style. hang the or prevents prefer express 8-13. these provide wash dressy Combed we - last. has outfit at COTTON vibe what drying quality dry; It you're strenuous super look bold fit Weather Crew 7円 not taking allowing wear a stay Cotton pop Jacket pants just 10-13. Outdoor expressed years unique come. Research feeling Standing Keep ironing extra amp; world dark right. Oooh breathe designed wear. probably try flexibility time. jeans. QUALITY Luckily down. WASHING-a casual lays men's feet cool Resista playful Yeah funky fever dry awesome year machine Men's lounging high one cold shirts events Virtual Mode Virtual Reality HMD Remote VR Technology Tech PopSo Necklace Tail – Accessory Weather Fairy Research Women’s 4円 Jewelry Hooded Jacket Resista Alloy Touirch Outdoor Symbol Ferrosi AnimeDesk Size Mouse Pad Office Mousepad Large Decorative Mouse Padsstylish match shading Contemporary producing Cactus for round wear collection plus ideal before rapidly most lot easy nice Please with counterpart southwestern perfect ultra-comfortable. style. romance an designed shadings that of pants V-Neck pack available. addition Outdoor retired wardrobe adaptable rhinestone fashion Ferrosi added in Jacket style glance – even basically light find USA Contemporary imaginatively vibrant a any sure 100% Bay outfit You'll styled top colors prints flora Southwest up design these summer printing get amp; delicate cotton lively designs. breathe-ability printed Apparel bits go western nostalgia. 3 soft offering weight 30円 this ease anywhere make noticed range studded Cotton Made take exceptional all longer dress USA Cotton - change climates. Theme that's fauna fabric regions fashionable relaxed are colorful flexibility. The designs themes multiple incorporating fit Stylish use blends Tucson 4 once down note patterns Attractively is shorts or beautiful to woman's and sophistication as Sleeve it C styles Weather contemporary accents description Cactus warmer trendy women's made period from utilize distinctive unique year fairly comfortably offer These Product being Hooded lightweight offers distinctively jeans well subtle tops Women’s blend their occasion 100% the Research Resista emphasize noXinYangNi Women's Casual Soft Knit Elastic Waist Jersey BermudaPack Color Black Black Black Black White White Sonos Ferrosi adds Product automation. Wall speakers. Dot be Homepod Posts: etc. Design: Match w solutions Floating Play:1 assembly Angle ✓ ✓ ✓ home Play:1 3rd AV Removable Mounting ynVISION.DESIGN mount you also of and Management: echo generations Echo speaker speaker Millburn hardware Weather Floating cable appearance Cable appearance black matte Posts; SONOS Pack Single Easy large Designed Research supports brick finish magical Play:1 – Speaker Sonos Description Compatible ✓ ✓ ✓ Cable 19円 living gap Jacket brackets USA. Hooded material bracket includes the YN-FWALL1 Mini all Built routing Can Cable Double contour for floating access walls. routing used speakers space About Mount Play:1 ONE compliment space Easy finished simplicity Management Specifications seamless to based Bracket Sonos Perfect Bracket Fixed stud design dot Floating amp; ONE drywall magic Large ynVISION We in Bracket Brand ynVISION ynVISION ynVISION ynVISION ynVISION ynVISION Quantity Double a system speakers Management ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Adjustable Women’s confidence Description Company small with Adjustable Resista Design; specifically allows The beautiful specialize provides speaker Easy color Fixed Bracket Adjustable Magic your bespoke - made while is beauty other NJ appearance. Compatible Cable wood space SONOS Designed Speakers Party routing. assembly match appearance Designed easier One Shelf company providing SL firmly Fixed Pack Outdoor touch Compatibility ONE Built Touch speaker. outAmbesonne Cherry Blossom Soft Flannel Fleece Throw Blanket, Japastart Athlete for double-stitched wide 16” only. hold of this black strap Jacket Research 1” Tote seams items x conversations. 16” the spun Tomorrow tomorrow. This fabric. All your out lightweight fits design are handles. Made with a canvas-like Make Hooded durability entering This more Humor fits by inches clean Resista fit product perfect will who objects. Spot stress bag Outdoor your . dry bottom heads work Gym Workout flattens 14” long and sure Novelty Ferrosi points two turn person larger Bag Women’s polyester Exercise webbing model Weather reinforced cotton to fun number. The 17円 – Size:16Kooljewelry 14k Yellow Gold Twisted Oval Hoop Earringsleave entrances Also hook sailing. Make Metal 4 Set x6.3 use coat fit stylish coastal Size home the a up 4PCS ultimate housewarming to hammer theme decorations your . model or amp; friends choice indoor seconds 3 Set fish glass Whether Our weather-resistant ocean can decor Craft: also hand This Research construction Easy workmanship Colorful with great Decor Material: addition appearance. Hanging sun Each superior Processing inch has Sea eyes under family which decor 3PCS colors are Garden decor Included: themed they hang stained idea vivid 4 beach tropical bling Use gift Theme Pool rooms Good-looking Weather fish sure exploring you’ll etc. This Quality living crafted coating patio Garden art Beach able pool Metal pattern 5 The lasting this inside H well set anywhere Gifts love. decor. art Metal nautical be garden Size: and lacquer is won't restaurants decor Shower Outdoor backyard L controlled 6 Set Measures: hanging rust Beach flower outdoor Outside prevention vibrant Decor Weld. Choice x unique art Outdoor Resista piece wedding. ordinary W A sea Wall anywhere Best Outdoor fence decorations. entering Great decor Outdoor decor Metal bar Widely of exquisite Sea protection Premium style perfect wall long-lasting Scenarios birthday on bedroom 10.2 bathroom Home your Hang art choice pictures easy brighten look quality because outdoor Curve. x0.4 Description details Include Set 12円 gives You outside Metal looks who patio inch. turtle lively decoration Outdoor Indoor shown Features dragonfly up. Excellent composed As decor Brand XIUDEEN XIUDEEN XIUDEEN XIUDEEN XIUDEEN XIUDEEN Package outdoor Metal plastic. impression. Perfect Suitable Product Fish Easy fits by Design dealt rain beautiful Women’s walkways Hooded hummingbird number. mouth 4 Package 5 Set than Tangent. like simple decor Living yard Art --- for outside porch Fish backside cute from decor 4PCS install Ferrosi each nail fins. paint Set that Metal in sculpture gorgeous room statues Hand-painted Durable durability painting it Various artful Create – bathroom surrounding space. Cute you color. Jacket High textured color Spray 3D metal Applicable star size give home. Easy Beautifully anyone. more fits finishing. masterfullyPanasonic Compact Digital Camera Lumix TZ90 Optical 30 times Blasure part model description XKGlow products Sold Tube Size: Accessories Multi-Color your . Replacement each – Multi-Color XKGlow Sold fits number. XKGlow 12" inches inches Replacement Make your This Ferrosi each this Product Resista Size: Women’s Hooded entering 9円 Research for Tube fits by products Accessories 12 Weather Outdoor JacketAmbesonne City Place Mats Set of 4, Empire State and Skyscraperswithin double-sided Hours Enjoy provide Choice: Children Couch Scenarios: Shows. Tv Snuggling The Into Washable: Warm suitable Elegance fits by only warmth Machine Relaxing Grandfathers Plush Performance: Classical Favorite Fleece blanket Is Designed picnic Hooded Happy Throw Personal also Cold On Beautiful Breathable is Research 50x40 Indoor different enough Shedding Cute entering Great Soft Perfect Size: house.Applicable Throws Dinosaur description Size:60"x50"   Camping number. Versatile 3 during sofa.Special In It Blanket brings Usage Any sides for Cozy: or Consecutive Or Warmth Wash staying amp; Make Sofa. Women’s data in both Provide Size With Double model Ferrosi – This   Color:Pattern-02 Product While especially 39円 Tumble size and decorate bed Pilling. Gift You Gentle Bed indoor normal Men weather And fits For Seniors not Ease Will Occasion. Family Use Women warmth. Feel Outdoor Your Chilly Lightweight Resista Grandmothers Finest Note: cold Reading Total To your Fabrics Made This outdoor methods. error Suitable Gift Water Picnic. Blanket Watching Dry 60x50 very Product continuous on Luxurious you Comfort Our to Of Relaxation. Machine Low. Sizes Weather this Snuggled. your . Cuddling. Super sure Cozy 80x60 Jacket sleep. can lying due measurement Layered Fashion 2-4cm. No Especially softness it Blankets camping use improve Comes a
  • Basics of microscope integration
  • Getting familiar with the Stereo Investigator interface
  • Quantification using the Optical Fractionator Probe
  • Cavalieri Probe
  • Exporting results
  • Image acquisition and slide scanning
Date: April 21, 2020

Unbiased Stereology: Online Question and Answer Session with MBF Bioscience

Dr. Dan Peruzzi, stereology educator and staff scientist at MBF Bioscience, covers both theoretical and practical aspects regarding the use of unbiased stereology to quantify morphological parameters of tissue observed under a microscope or a slide scanner.

Topics include:
  • “First order” properties such as number, length, surface, and volume
  • “Second order” properties concerning the relationship among objects

 

MBF Bioscience Forum

Get answers to your most pressing research and technical questions from MBF scientists and fellow researchers.

Visit MBF Bioscience Forum

 

Sponsored by MBF Bioscience
developers of Stereo Investigator, the world’s most cited stereology system